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2021考研英语:《经济学人》中英读译Day208

作者:聚创考研网-王老师 点击量: 144 发布时间: 2020-10-29 09:09 【微信号:扫码加咨询】


英语阅读能力依靠什么?必然是词汇的积累,但,仅仅是词汇的积累是不够了,更应该了解英语句式,不同句型所表达意义。如何培养自己的阅读语感呢?那么就跟着聚创考研网小编每天学一点英语,一起为考研筑起坚实的地基。阅读是需要积累的,就像我们需要经常和人沟通才会促进我们的表达能力一样~小伙伴跟着小编一起,每天坚持打卡,培养英语阅读能力及语感,了解文章一些经典词汇的用法。


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经济学人:印度金融——UPI(2)

Both the identity and the payment layers are controlled by the government, but open to others. As a result, using the system is cheap.Outside India payments tend to be handled mainly by private firms such as Visa, Mastercard, American Express or, in China, Ant Financial and Tencent.These own the pipes through which funds flow, and can charge heavily for their use.Their close relationships with users create high barriers to entry, putting new entrants at a disadvantage. By contrast, UPI is forbidden to charge merchants fees.India's set-up enables competition. The heavily regulated banking system still holds all the funds.However, layered on top are a number of lightly regulated private companies, with which customers interact directly.
译文

身份和支付层面都由政府管控,但是对其他人开放。因此,使用该系统的成本很低。除印度外,支付业务往往主要由私企处理,如Visa、万事达、美国运通或中国的蚂蚁金融和腾讯。这些银行拥有资金流动的管道,并且可以对用户收取高额费用。它们与用户的密切关系抬高了进入壁垒,使新进入者处于不利地位。相比之下,UPI禁止向商户收取费用。印度的体制使竞争成为可能。受到严格监管的银行系统仍然持有所有资金。然而在上层的是一些监管宽松的私企,他们会与客户进行直接接触。


These apps initiate transactions and have access to account information but do not control money or networks.Paytm, a home-grown firm, and PhonePe, owned by Walmart, are big players. So too is Google, perhaps explaining its enthusiasm for the system.But the costs of switching are negligible, requiring just a tap on a phone.UPI will next step into the realm of lending. Seven "account aggregator" are preparing to launch (although covid-19 has delayed their roll-out).Once granted a customer's permission, these will compile a history of funds received and paid, which can be shared with lenders.
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这些应用程序启动交易,且能够访问账户信息,但不需要控制资金或网络。本土公司Paytm和沃尔玛旗下的PhonePe都是大玩家。谷歌也是如此,这或许可以解释它对该系统的热情。但交换成本可以忽略不计,只需在手机上轻轻一按。UPI下一步将进入贷款领域。7账户聚集器正等待推出(虽然covid-19疫情推迟了它们的推广)。一旦获得客户的许可,这些程序就会汇编一份资金收付的历史记录,并可与贷款方共享。


The benefits of such a system are clear. It would break the links between credit and collateral or personal relationships,and allow even small lenders to get loans based on their transaction histories and their income.When combined with cheap transfer costs, the cost of lending to even the tiniest business could fall. These now pay as much as 4% for a one-day loan.
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这样一个系统的好处是显而易见的。它将打破贷款与抵押品或个人关系之间的联系,甚至允许小额贷款机构根据他们的交易历史和收入获得贷款。再加上低廉的转移成本,即便是向最小企业放贷的成本也可能下降。现在一天的贷款利率高达4%


But this is also where the drawbacks of UPI could become most apparent. Only a handful of transactions fail, but glitches have been known to occur.Aadhaar numbers have leaked before. Security matters more when access to credit is at stake.Another concern is the extent of the government's control over parts of the infrastructure. In related areas it has not been above misusing its clout.In 2019, for instance, it shut down the internet in the troubled territory of Kashmir.Clever as India's digital financial system is, such risks could mean that, for some, cash retains the edge.
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但这也是UPI劣势最为明显的地方。只有少数交易失败,但已知会发生一些小故障。此前,Aadhaar数据泄露。当信贷的获取受到威胁时,安全问题就更加重要了。另一个问题是政府对部分基础设施的控制程度。在相关领域,政府一直在滥用自己的影响力。例如,在2019年,印度政府关闭了问题领土克什米尔地区的互联网。尽管印度的数字金融系统很聪明,但这种风险可能意味着,对一些人来说,现金仍具有优势。

注释

1.interact 相互作用
Perfume interacts with the skin's natural chemicals.
香水和皮肤的天然化学物质相互作用。


2.negligible微不足道的
The pay that the soldiers received was negligible.
士兵拿到的军饷少得可怜。


3.leak 泄露
The contents of the report were leaked to the press.
报告的内容泄露到新闻界了。


4.misuse滥用
You are protected instantly if a thief misuses your credit card.
如果小偷盗用你的信用卡,你的卡会立即受到保护。

 

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